Parliamentary elections will be held in Estonia on 5 March 2023 to elect all 101 members of the Riigikogu.
The 101 members of the Riigikogu are elected by proportional representation in twelve multi-member constituencies. Seats are allocated using a modified D’Hondt method. Parties have to pass a nationwide threshold of 5%, but if the number of votes cast for an individual candidate exceeds or equals the simple quota (obtained by dividing the number of valid votes cast in the electoral district by the number of mandates in the district), they are elected. The remaining seats are allocated based on each party’s share of the vote and the number of votes received by individual candidates. Any seats not allocated at the constituency level are filled using a closed list presented by each party at the national level.
Sources and further reading:
Why is the populist radical right so successful in Estonia?
Raul Rebane: Women to decide election result and Estonia’s path